Many patients have started using HBOT for weight loss. Obesity is a global health problem that affects both first world and also developing countries. Obesity is becoming more common around the world as a result of increased consumption of higher- calorie meals, along with the decreased use of body energy. According to the World Health Organization, global obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. The rise of general obesity in China has increased by approximately 90%, which is currently garnering concern.
Obesity is generally defined as a chronic pathological condition characterized by excess fat deposition in adipose tissue. This is usually accompanied by metabolic dysfunctions such as increased lipid storage in tissues, compensatory lipolysis increase, skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation dysfunction, and increased circulatory free fatty acid. These abnormalities in lipid metabolism are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cancer. The underlying molecular mechanism of these abnormalities is currently being explored extensively, although much work and research still needs to be done.
Skeletal muscle is involved during fatty acid metabolism, particularly oxidative slow-twitch fibers. A high fat diet has been demonstrated to boost compensatory skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and beta-oxidation. In contrast, HFD treatment has also been linked to mitochondrial complication and interrupted beta-oxidation. The process of this beta-oxidation involves many chemicals. L-carnitine, a quaternary amine molecule, is particularly important because it serves several functions in fatty acid metabolism. L-carnitine’s main purpose is participating in the traditional “carnitine shuttle” mechanism. Changes in L-carnitine levels are linked to CPT1 expression and beta oxidation levels, implying that L-carnitine levels are linked to beta-oxidation efficacy. Furthermore, a decrease in L-carnitine levels in skeletal muscle has been linked to an increase in circulatory FFA, with the latter mostly releasing from adipose tissue via lipolysis, with hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) being the rate-limiting enzyme, demonstrating that L-carnitine may influence lipid metabolism in both skeletal muscle and the principal fatty acid storage site, adipose tissue. Notably, there were contradictory findings on L-carnitine’s impact on obesity and metabolic syndrome. While it is acknowledged that L-carnitine supplements are ineffective for weight loss or correcting dyslipidemia, evidence for its effect on obesity and enhancing lipid metabolism has also been published. Much more research into the involvement of L-carnitine in fatty acid metabolism disorders is needed.
Many treatments, like pharmacy medications and physical exercise regimens, have been used to treat fatty acid metabolism malfunction and obesity. However, low response rates and unpleasant results hamper their use. Therefore, other possible treatments for fatty acid metabolism malfunction and obesity are widely desired. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT) treatment is a type of physical therapy in which patients are given 100% oxygen at pressures more than one atmosphere absolute. HBOT has been used to treat decompression sickness, carbon monoxide poisoning, clostridial infections, diabetic cutaneous problems, burning, radiation damage, and delayed wound healing in clinical trials. Recently, HBOT treatment has been proven to aid in metabolic disorders. Thus, in the current research, HBOT therapy is used in conjunction with HFD in C57/B6 mice to see if it may relieve HFD-induced fatty acid metabolic dysfunction.