Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy – FDA-Approved and Off-Label Uses.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment modality that involves breathing pure oxygen in a pressurized environment. Originally developed in the early 20th century, HBOT has evolved significantly and is now used for a variety of medical conditions. The therapy’s applications range from FDA-approved treatments to a plethora of off-label uses, some of which are supported by anecdotal evidence and preliminary studies. This article aims to explore the current landscape of HBOT, comparing FDA-approved indications with non-FDA-approved, off-label uses, and examining the scientific evidence supporting these applications.

FDA-Approved Uses of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved HBOT for several medical conditions. These approvals are based on rigorous clinical trials and scientific evidence demonstrating the therapy’s efficacy and safety. The primary FDA-approved indications for HBOT include:

1. Decompression Sickness

Decompression sickness, also known as “the bends,” occurs when divers ascend too quickly, causing nitrogen bubbles to form in the bloodstream. HBOT is the standard treatment for decompression sickness, as the high-pressure oxygen environment helps dissolve these bubbles and restores normal blood flow .

2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

HBOT is highly effective in treating carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. By increasing the amount of oxygen in the blood, HBOT accelerates the displacement of CO from hemoglobin, reducing the risk of long-term neurological damage .

3. Chronic Non-Healing Wounds

HBOT is approved for treating chronic non-healing wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers. The therapy promotes wound healing by enhancing oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues, stimulating angiogenesis, and reducing inflammation .

4. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

Also known as flesh-eating disease, necrotizing soft tissue infections require aggressive treatment, including HBOT. The therapy helps inhibit the growth of anaerobic bacteria and enhances the effectiveness of antibiotics .

5. Radiation Tissue Damage

Patients who undergo radiation therapy for cancer can suffer from radiation-induced tissue damage, particularly in the bones and soft tissues. HBOT helps mitigate these effects by promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues and improving oxygen supply .

6. Gas Embolism

Gas embolism, a condition where gas bubbles enter the bloodstream, can occur during certain surgical procedures or traumatic injuries. HBOT is effective in reducing the size of gas bubbles and restoring normal circulation .

Non-FDA-Approved Off-Label Uses of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

While the FDA-approved uses of HBOT are well-documented and widely accepted, the therapy is also employed for numerous off-label conditions. These off-label uses are often based on preliminary research, clinical observations, and patient testimonials. Some of the most common off-label applications include:

1. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

HBOT has shown promise in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Some studies suggest that the therapy can reduce brain inflammation, improve cognitive function, and enhance neurological recovery in TBI patients. However, the evidence is still inconclusive, and more large-scale, randomized controlled trials are needed to establish its efficacy .

2. Stroke

Patients who have suffered a stroke may benefit from HBOT, as it can enhance neuroplasticity and promote recovery of brain function. Some small studies and case reports have shown positive outcomes, but larger clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings .

3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

HBOT is increasingly being used to treat children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proponents believe that the therapy can improve behavioral symptoms and cognitive function by reducing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. However, scientific evidence supporting these claims is limited and controversial .

4. Lyme Disease

Chronic Lyme disease patients often turn to HBOT for relief from persistent symptoms. Some researchers hypothesize that HBOT can help by killing the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease and reducing inflammation. While anecdotal evidence is abundant, robust clinical trials are lacking .

5. Fibromyalgia

HBOT has been explored as a potential treatment for fibromyalgia, a condition characterized by widespread pain and fatigue. Some studies suggest that the therapy can reduce pain and improve quality of life in fibromyalgia patients, but more research is needed to validate these findings .

6. Cerebral Palsy

Parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) sometimes seek HBOT to improve motor function and cognitive abilities. Preliminary studies have shown some benefits, but the results are mixed, and more rigorous trials are required to determine the therapy’s effectiveness in CP .

Mechanisms of Action

Understanding the mechanisms by which HBOT exerts its effects is crucial for evaluating its potential uses. The primary mechanisms include:

1. Hyperoxygenation

HBOT increases the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood, which enhances oxygen delivery to tissues, particularly in hypoxic or ischemic areas. This hyperoxygenation can promote tissue repair, reduce edema, and support the function of compromised organs .

2. Angiogenesis and Neovascularization

The therapy stimulates the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and the repair of damaged blood vessels (neovascularization). These processes are vital for wound healing and the recovery of tissues affected by ischemia or radiation damage .

3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects

HBOT reduces inflammation by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the release of anti-inflammatory mediators. This anti-inflammatory effect is beneficial in conditions like chronic wounds, radiation tissue damage, and inflammatory diseases .

4. Antimicrobial Activity

The high oxygen environment in HBOT inhibits the growth of anaerobic bacteria and enhances the effectiveness of certain antibiotics. This makes HBOT particularly useful in treating infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and chronic osteomyelitis .

Safety and Risks

While HBOT is generally considered safe, it is not without risks. The most common side effects include barotrauma to the ears and sinuses, temporary myopia, and oxygen toxicity. More severe complications, although rare, can include seizures and lung damage. It is essential for practitioners to carefully screen patients for contraindications, such as untreated pneumothorax, before initiating HBOT.

Regulatory and Ethical Considerations

The use of HBOT for non-FDA-approved conditions raises several regulatory and ethical issues. On one hand, patients and clinicians argue that access to potentially beneficial treatments should not be unduly restricted. On the other hand, the lack of robust evidence for many off-label uses raises concerns about efficacy, safety, and the potential for exploitation.

1. Informed Consent

Patients seeking HBOT for off-label uses should be fully informed about the current state of scientific evidence, potential risks, and alternative treatments. Informed consent is crucial to ensure that patients make well-informed decisions about their care .

2. Clinical Trials

To address the uncertainty surrounding off-label uses of HBOT, more high-quality clinical trials are needed. Researchers should prioritize large-scale, randomized controlled trials to provide robust evidence on the efficacy and safety of HBOT for various conditions .

3. Regulation and Oversight

Regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, should continue to monitor the use of HBOT and provide guidance on its off-label applications. This includes setting standards for the training and certification of HBOT practitioners to ensure patient safety and treatment efficacy .

Future Directions

The future of HBOT is promising, with ongoing research exploring new applications and refining existing protocols. Advances in technology, such as portable hyperbaric chambers and improved oxygen delivery systems, may expand the accessibility and convenience of HBOT. Furthermore, emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies may pave the way for new FDA-approved indications.

1. Personalized Medicine

The integration of HBOT with personalized medicine approaches, such as genomics and metabolomics, could enhance the therapy’s effectiveness by tailoring treatments to individual patient profiles. This personalized approach may help identify patients who are most likely to benefit from HBOT .

2. Combination Therapies

Combining HBOT with other therapeutic modalities, such as stem cell therapy, pharmacotherapy, and physical rehabilitation, may enhance treatment outcomes. Synergistic effects between HBOT and other treatments could lead to more comprehensive and effective care strategies .

3. New Indications

Ongoing research is exploring the potential of HBOT for new indications, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain syndromes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Preliminary findings are encouraging, but more rigorous studies are needed to establish these new uses .

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a versatile treatment with a wide range of applications, both FDA-approved and off-label. While the therapy’s efficacy for FDA-approved indications is well-supported by scientific evidence, many off-label uses remain controversial and require further investigation. As research continues to expand our understanding of HBOT, it is essential to balance the potential benefits with the need for rigorous scientific validation and patient safety. With continued advancements and high-quality clinical trials, HBOT may become an increasingly valuable tool in modern medicine, offering hope for patients with a variety of challenging conditions.


  1. Moon, R. E. (2014). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy indications. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society.
  2. Thom, S. R. (2011). Hyperbaric oxygen: its mechanisms and efficacy. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 127(Suppl 1), 131S-141S.
  3. Gill, A. L., & Bell, C. N. (2004). Hyperbaric oxygen: its uses, mechanisms of action and outcomes. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 97(7), 385-395.
  4. Hampson, N. B. (2017). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 1999 committee report. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society.
  5. Weaver, L. K. (2009). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society.
  6. Feldmeier, J. J. (2003). Hyperbaric oxygen 2003: Indications and results: The Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee Report. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society.
  7. Kranke, P., Bennett, M. H., Martyn-St James, M., Schnabel, A., Debus, S. E., & Weibel, S. (2015). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for chronic wounds. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6), CD004123.
  8. Heyboer, M., Sharma, D., Santiago, W., & McCulloch, N. (2014). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: side effects defined and quantified. Advances in Wound Care, 3(6), 285-294.
  9. Rossignol, D. A., Rossignol, L. W., James, S. J., Melnyk, S., Mumper, E., & Ehrlich, S. (2007). The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on oxidative stress, inflammation, and symptoms in children with autism: an open-label pilot study. BMC Pediatrics, 7(1), 36.
  10. Carlson, R. W., & Hussain, A. A. (2020). The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of post-concussion syndrome. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(9), 3142.